ISSN: 2640-7795
Open Journal of Biological Sciences
Short Communication       Open Access      Peer-Reviewed

Definition of Diptera Cyclorrhapha or Muscomorpha

Carlos Henrique Marchiori*

Biological Sciences, Parasitology, Federal Institute Goiano, Goiânia, Brazil
*Corresponding author: Dr. Carlos Henrique Marchiori, Biological Sciences, Parasitology, Federal Institute Goiano, Goiânia, Brazil, E-mail: chmarchiori@yahoo.com.br
Received: 04 January, 2020 | Accepted: 12 March, 2020 | Published: 13 March, 2020
Keywords: Flies; Myiasis; Synanthropic; Symbovines; Parasitism; Brazil

Cite this as

Marchiori CH (2020) Definition of Diptera Cyclorrhapha or Muscomorpha. Open J Biol Sci 5(1): 013-014. DOI: 10.17352/ojbs.000017

Some species of dipterous included in the infraorder Muscomorpha are of fundamental medical and veterinary importance, since they can produce myiasis and act towards transmission of pathogens to humans and animals. These dipterans are potential mechanical vectors for etiological agents such as viruses, bacteria, protozoan cysts and helminth eggs. This study aimed to make a definition of Diptera Cyclorrhapha or Muscomorpha, as well as their technical characteristics, interactions and classification. Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is a specie of great sanitary interest because of its synanthropic characteristics, abundance in urban areas, capacity to develop in several sorts of substrates and high reproductive.

Technical features

The 60,000 described species of Cyclorrhapha (Muscomorpha) (Figures 1-3) are characterized by an unusual diversity in larval life-history traits, which range from saprophagy over phytophagy to parasitism and predation. Act in the transmission of pathogens to humans and animals [1-4]. These diptera are potential mechanical vectors for etiologic agents, such as viruses, bacteria, protozoan cysts and helminth eggs [2].

The Cyclorrhapha is composed of those flies where the adult escapes from the pupal case through a circular opening in the anterior end. These flies are characterized by the possession of three-segmented antennae where the last segmat bears an arista or style. The suborder Cyclorrhapha (Muscomorpha has historically represented one of three suborders of the Diptera, along with the Nematocera and Brachycera (Figure 1). Recently, it has been proposed that the Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha be combined in an infraorder called the Muscomorpha [5].

Recently, been proposed that the Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha be combined in an infraorder called the Muscomorpha [5].

The Cyclorrhapha contains many adult flies that are free-living and many of the flies that are true parasites of vertebrates as larval stages. Within this group are the filth flies (Muscidae), the flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), the blow flies (Calliphoridae), and the tse-tse (Glossinidae). Some of these flies are parasitic as larvae causing myiasis that may be obligatory or which can be facultative. One last group of these flies, the Cuteribridae, causes significant disease in cats through the migration of the large bot-like larval stage that is usually found in the rodents or lagomorphs [6].

This study aimed to make a definition of Diptera Cyclorrhapha or Muscomorpha, as well as their technical characteristics, interactions and classification.

Methods

This study, which consists of building a bibliographic summary of the main groups of parasitoids of the Order Diptera Muscomorpha a bibliographic search, was carried out that contained published works on the following aspects: definition, classification and interaction.

Muscomorpha-interaction

Synanthropic (Syn= joint action; Anthropos= man): Those who, due to their development, take advantage of man-made conditions, ie the products resulting from the urbanization process and/or low level of hygiene. (Animal and human waste, urban and industrial waste, dumps, landfills and open pits and open markets).

Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), Chrysomya spp. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Lucillia spp. (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

Symbovines “Linked to man through the excreta of domestic animals, mainly herbivores” Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) (stable fly) and Haematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) (horn fly).

Myiasis producers nitial considerations

Animal husbandry (cattle, poultry) at population density, excrements favoring the development of larvae at synanthropic or symbolic flies.

Disordered expansion of cities to accumulation of garbage and conditions for the proliferation of synanthropic flies.

In general, the present modified Nematocera mouthparts and stylus picks Muscomorpha, the stylets have been lost and mouth parts are adapted to absorb liquid food [7].

 Musca domestica is a specie of great sanitary interest because of its synanthropic characteristics, abundance in urban areas, capacity to develop in several sorts of substrates and high reproductive capacity and also is of major medical and sanitary interest, because it is responsible for secondary myiasis and is a vector for pathogenic microorganisms [2].

Knowledge of the biology and population activities of these various types of dipterous insects is important from an epidemiological point of view. on of diseases and dispossession of the host process can be ascertained. This information can contribute significantly towards studies aimed at prevention of disease transmission by these insects and towards formulation of more effective control methods [8-10].

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  2. Greenberg B (1971) Dipterous and disease-ecology, classification and biotic association. (3rd ed.). New Jersey, Princeton Univertisty Press 856.
  3. Marchiori CH (2013) Parasitoids of Diptera of importance to public health, medical, veterinary and economic collected in two different types of traps in southern Goiás, Brazil. Mitteilungen klosterneuburg 62: 23-28. Link: https://bit.ly/3aNTQM7
  4. Ekanem MS, Idiong MO, Usua EJ (2013) Synanthropic indices and baits preferences of common non-biting dipterous (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Int J Biodivers Conserv 5: 192-197. Link: https://bit.ly/2wUhxDN
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  7. Boudreaux HB (1987) Arthropod phylogeny with special reference to insects. Malabar, Florida, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company 320. Link: https://bit.ly/38ImqgF
  8. Marchiori CH, Borges LMF, Ferreira LL (2013) Dipterous parasitoids collected from cattle dun in Goiânia, central Goiás, Brazil. J Pensée 75: 418-426. Link: https://bit.ly/3aMoiWV
  9. Marchiori CH (2014) First occurrence of Neralsia splendens (Borgmeier) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) as parasitoids of Cyrtoneurina pararescita Couri (Diptera: Muscidae) in a rural area in Brazil. Agric Sci 5: 84-86. Link: https://bit.ly/2IHwWtO
  10. Marchiori CH, Borges LMF, Ferreira LL (2014) Parasitoids of dipterous collected in cattle dung in the Regions Southern and Central of Goiás, Brazil. Advances in Entomology 2: 20-23. Link: https://bit.ly/2Q8Y5u5
© 2020 Marchiori CH. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.