Cite this asMeesa IR (2019) Medulloblastoma. Int J Radiol Radiat Oncol 5(1): 015-016. DOI: 10.17352/ijrro.000034
Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumors that develop in children second only to leukemia. They also account for the most cancer deaths in this patient population . 7% of all the brain tumors that were diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 in the United States were in patients younger than 20 years of age . Infratentorial tumors account for 45%-60% of brain tumors in children . Some of the most common pediatric posterior fossa tumors are medulloblastoma, ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. Medulloblastoma will be discussed in this paper.
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood accounting for 40% of all posterior fossa tumors . They are the most common tumor in the 6 to 11 year age group and comprise about 25% of brain tumors affecting children in that age range. They are highly malignant tumors composed of primitive, undifferentiated small, round cells .
In general, they are midline tumors developing within the vermis and grow into the fourth ventricle. In adults and adolescents, the tumor can be located in the cerebellar hemispheres [6,7]. Common imaging features include a hyper dense mass on CT, low signal on T2 weighted MR images and enhancement following contrast administration . Other features such as hemorrhage, necrosis, and cyst formation can be present but they are not distinguishing features from various subtypes or other tumors . The entire craniospinal axis must also be screened to determine the extent of leptomeningeal involvement  (Figures 1-4).
It is important for the radiologist to be aware of some of the more common pediatric brain tumors and their imaging features in order to make an accurate diagnosis in a timely manner and recommend additional workup as needed.
Priyanka Meesa, Undergraduate student at Duke University
Akash Meesa, Undergraduate student at Duke University
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