Cite this asGemechu T, Tadesse F, Sultan H (2020) Participatory Demonstration and Evaliation of Food Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties at Adami Tulu Jido kombolcha district, Central rift valley of Oromia, Ethiopia. Int J Agric Sc Food Technol 6(2): 186-189. DOI: 10.17352/2455-815X.000072
Two improved food barley varieties (Gobe and Bentu) were demonstrated along with local check as a follow up of participatory variety selection activity. The objectives were to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the varieties along with their management practices under farmers’ circumstances and to raise farmers’ knowledge and skill on food barley production and management practices. Sites were selected in collaboration with respective district agricultural offices. Trainings were given for farmers, Development Agents and experts and other stakeholders. The Participating farmers were also capacitated through follow up exchange visits and field days. Recommended seed and fertilizer rate were used for the demonstration trial establishment. According to the results, there was no statistically significant yield difference between the varieties at (p<0.05). However, both Gobe and Bentu varieties have shown higher yield advantage over local variety showing a yield advantage of 62% and 11.5% over the local variety respectively.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. It is widely grown fourth cereal and among top ten crop plants in the world . In Ethiopian context barley is staple food grain. It’s especially a major food crop across the Highlands of Ethiopia, where it is grown by approximately 4.1 million smallholder farmers on close to one million hectares . Ethiopia is ranked twenty-first in the world in barley production with a share of 1.2 percent of the world’s total production  with a national average production of 1.43t/ha . Both malt and food barley are produced in Ethiopia. Barley is the fifth most important crop after teff, maize, sorghum and wheat . Generally, traditionally it is used in different forms such as bread, porridge, soup, and roasted grain and for preparing alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Its straw is also used for animal feed, hatch roofs and beddings.
Although barley is considered a highland crop, it is also grown in marginal and low rainfall areas of the country including the rift valley [5,6]. However, the availability and distribution of rainfall is the major limiting factor for yield in these areas. Thus, farmers in such areas use their own landraces or local varieties that are adaptable but with poor yield ability. Studies also report that critical shortage of improved barley varieties adapted to low-moisture conditions is a major problem; and hence, farmers are forced to grow low yielding varieties .
In central rift valley areas of Oromia, Ethiopia, barley is one of the crops under production next to maize, wheat and haricot bean. However, its production and productivity has been affected by different constraints apart from rainfall availability. Some of the constraints include limited knowledge about barley production and unavailability or lack of improved varieties. Studies also point out that barleys mediocre productivity in such areas is primarily due to the use of low yielding local cultivars in the productive system of biotic and abiotic factors and the minimal use of improved barley production technologies . Despite the constraints there are opportunities for barley production and improving its productivity in such areas. The national agricultural research system of the country have also released different varieties of barley for stress areas though not yet well adopted by farmers.
Basing this opportunity and to alleviate the problem of the dominance of maize in the dry land production system a project with an objective of introducing non-traditional crops in dry land Agricultural Production System using participatory variety selections(PVS) was conducted by Adami Tulu Agricultural Research center in the past years. One of the crops included in the PVS was barley. The PVS has tested four barley varieties namely Gobe, Bentu, Diribie and HB1307. HB1307 was late maturing and highland barley but it is used as a check and also to try out its wider adaptability. From the study, though experiment was affected by severe shortage of rainfall caused by El Nino effect, promising results were found. In addition, with all the challenges, farmers have shown great interest in barley production and on the varieties tried.
Among the tested varieties Gobe variety was found outstanding followed by Bentu and Dirbie for its high grain yield. The late maturing variety HB-1307 was found low yielding as compared to all varieties. Gobe showed relative yield advantage of 32%, 49% and 85% over Bentu, Dirbie and HB-1307, respectively while Bentu showed 12% over Dirbie and 29% over HB-1307.
The study also tried to see farmers’ preferences among the tried varieties using matrix ranking. The ranking was done in such a way that farmers were let to rank preferred characteristics they look for in barley varieties first. After ranking the characteristics, the farmers then selected the tried varieties.
Accordingly, farmers ranked yield, seed per spike and early maturity respectively as major characteristics they want barley varieties to possess. Based on these characteristics farmers then selected Gobe and Bentu varieties, respectively. Therefore, this study was proposed with an objective of demonstrating these farmers preferred and better performing varieties (Gobe and Bentu) for improving barley production in rift valley areas of Oromia, Ethiopia.
• To demonstrate and evaluate the performance of food barley varieties under farmers’ conditions
• To enhance farmers’ knowledge and skill on food barley production and management
The study was conducted at Adami Tulu Jiddo Kombolcha (ATJK) district of East shoa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia where previous participatory variety selection of barley varieties was done. ATJK district is one of the districts in central rift valley of Oromia, Ethiopia. Most of the district ranges at an altitude from 1500 to 2300 meters above sea level; Mount Aluto is the highest point. Rivers found in the district include the Bulbula, Jido, Hora Kalio and Gogessa. A survey of the land in this district shows that 27.2% is arable or cultivable, 21.6% pasture, 9.9% forest, 15.7% swampy and the remaining 25.6% is considered as degraded or otherwise unusable (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adami_Tullu_and_Jido_Kombolcha ). The crops produced in the area are mainly maize, haricot bean, wheat, teff and barley.
The trial was conducted in two kebele’s where the previous PVS was conducted. Trail farmers were selected in collaboration with Development agents. Farmers’ Research Group (FRG) approach was followed to select and organize farmers. One group per Kevele consisting of 15 farmers was organized considering gender. From each FRG 3 trial farmers were then selected for the trial establishment; taking into consideration their interest to provide a land, previous production history of the crop, interest to involve in group and share his/her experiences.
Two adaptable early maturing barley varieties (Gobe and Bentu) were used for the demonstration compared with local variety that farmers were using. Planting material (Seed) was prepared in advance before the rainy season. Before planting germination test was conducted and the three varieties had similarity in their germination percentages which is greater than 95%.
The experiment was conducted on two Kebele’s of Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha district. The demonstration fields were laid out on six farmer’s field in both Kebeles, each having three trial farmers. Two barley varieties were demonstrated side by side along with one local check. The experimental field for each variety including the check was 10 X10m2. Farmers were used as replication. Land was prepared by farmer using oxen plow. Seeds were sown at the recommended rate of 85 kgha-1 in rows (20cm between rows). Fertilizer rate of NPS 100kg/ha was used. Plots were kept free of weeds using hand weeding to produce a successful barley crop.
After group formation, different capacity development activities were undertaken. Training was given for the groups of farmers, DAs and SMS to improve their level of knowledge about barley production. Field visits were conducted for farmers to observe each other’s field and understand the difference between their management.
Grain yield, costs involved and income gained were collected.
The collected agronomic and financial data were also analyzed using SPSS and presented using table. Yield advantage of the improved varieties over local check was also calculated using the following formula and presented using table.
The following table shows the combined analysis result on yield performance of the varieties demonstrated in the district. According to the result, a mean yield of 17.57 ± 3.28 qt ha, 13.55 ±3.23 qt/ha and 12.15 ±2.59 was harvested from Gobe, Bentu and local varieties, respectively. The analysis of variance among the yield of the demonstrated varieties show that the varieties have no statistically significant yield difference at (P<0.05) among themselves (Tables 1,2). Yet, the demonstration result obtained was lower than what was reported during their Participatory variety selection (PVS) stage (ATARC horticulture team, unpublished report) and also similar studies conducted at Dugda district . This yield difference could be associated with the rainfall and management differences among the farmers and their respective districts.
The following table shows the yield advantage of the demonstrated Gobe and Bentu food barley varieties over the local barley variety. The yield advantage was calculated using the following formula.
Accordingly, the yield advantage calculations show that Gobe and Bentu varieties have 62 and 11.5% yield advantage over the local variety, respectively Table 3.
In terms of profitability the financial analysis result show that an average return of 14,408.8 and 10,479.00 ETB per hectare can be gained by using Gobe and Bentu varieties, respectively. Whereas an average return of 9,107.00 can be obtained by using the local variety in one production season in the study areas Table 4.
During the demonstration, after group formation, different capacity development activities were undertaken. Among which training is one of them. The training was conducted at on station. The training was given for the groups of farmers, and extension workers where a total of 33 participants have participated. The training was intended to enhance participant farmers’ knowledge and skill on food barley production and management. Its scope is limited to only creating awareness about the activity and the improved varieties and did not go up to analyzing the contribution of the training in improving barley yield. The following table describes who were the participants and presented in gender disaggregated form Table 5.
As a follow-up of participatory variety selection (PVS) activity, the results indicated that both varieties demonstrated gave promising yield. They were also found to be profitable and had an extra yield advantage over the local variety. However, there is a lot to be improved in making this varieties feasible to the farming communities by decreasing the gap between demonstration yield and potential yield of the varieties. Therefore, the research system has to work on releasing more adaptable moisture stress food barley varieties. Yet, until new varieties are made available basing farmers’ feed backs and the extra yield advantage of the varieties over the local one Gobe is recommended for further scaling up. Yet, Bentu is also an additional variety which can be used for further scaling up activities.
Ochratoxin A is one of the secondary metabolite of mycotoxin group and can be existed in several agricultural products and in animal feeds . Number of studies finding report indicate that Ochratoxin A was existed in several processed and unprocessed food stuffs, species and different alcoholic beverage. For instance, in cereal, milk, meat and species [12-15] in alcoholic beverage such as beer and wine [16,17]. Likewise, some dried fruit and coffee was infected by Ochratoxin A in [17,18]. But cereals occupy the ﬁrst position of the total exposure to Ochratoxin A with 60% because of cereal have high moisture contents some times more than 20% . Hence, to protect consumer from different health risks different International Organization was set the maximum permissible limits for Ochratoxin A in different food stuffs and alcoholic beverage. Then, the maximum limits of 5.0 ng/g Ochratoxin A in raw cereal grains whereas 3.0 ng/g in cereal-processed. Similarly, coffee and dried fruit 10 ng/g wines and cereal based baby food 2 µg/L and 0.5 ng/g respectively set by European commission . Likewise, Ochratoxin A has also been determined in foods of animal origin such as pork blood products, pork kidney, pork liver, or pork meat. The reason the pigs are predominantly exposed to Ochratoxin A through their contaminated feed . In short, Ochratoxin A is a secondary metabolite produced either by penicillin in cereal and cereal proceeds food or Aspergilli in wine, grapes, coffee and cocoa . According to this in recent time several scientific communities has received increased primary attention towards the effects of Ochratoxin A because of its hazard to human and animal health . In general, animals are directly exposed to mycotoxins through the consumption of mould feedstuff Whereas, human exposure can be via one of two routes; direct exposure due to the consumption of mould plant products, or indirect exposure through the consumption of contaminated animal products .
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 1999) report estimated that around 12% of total Ochratoxin A intake comes from consumption of coffee. Through these contaminated foods and animal product consumption it leads several health problem to human beings. For instance, Ochratoxin A has been shown to be nephrotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic in human health . The effect of Ochratoxin A is not only for human and animal health but also negative impacts on country economy and trading system. According to many experimental studies data indicate that the effect of mycotoxins leads serious problem to developing country marketing system. For example, one of the early studies report shown that around 2.3 million bags of maize was rejected totally from marketing and consumption during the presence of aflatoxin in Kenya from 2004 up to 2006 .
Moreover, recent investigation on similar country different agricultural product especially the price of maize was dropped by half from 1800 to 900 Kenya shillings due to the effects mycotoxin . Furthermore, coffee is one of the most extensively consumed beverages all over the world and important for foreign exchange in developing and developed country. However, the occurrence of Ochratoxin A in coffee has gained high attention in the International coffee trade market .
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a major secondary metabolite of mycotoxins present in several agricultural commodity and leads several health problem for both animal and human beings. Primarily, human exposure directly from Ochratoxin A cause through the consumption of Ochratoxin A contaminated plant origin foods (cereal) and indirectly from animal product when the animals are feeds Ochratoxin A contaminated feeds. Once, the humans are exposure to Ochratoxin A, Ochratoxin A has several toxigenic effects to human health such as, teratogenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, and immunosuppress . In addition, the human health effects or disorders due to consumption of mycotoxin contaminated foods include diarrhea, reproductive disorder, cancer, growth impairment and immunomodulation . In short, the impacts of Ochratoxin A on human health can be sever especially in the developing countries due to the combination of social, agricultural, economical and storage system can be contributed for exposure .
Similar to that of human being, animals are exposed to Ochratoxin A causes when the feeds have been known to exhibit the form of intoxication which can leads to death through consumptions . Once the animals are exposed to Ochratoxin shows different clinical signs which leads to liver damage, reduced weight gain, and decline of products (like egg, meat, milk and milk products) . As, a result the consequence becomes economic losses to both society and industry. A few scientists believed that Ochratoxin A contamination was linked to micronutrient deficiencies in animals whereas a few of them are now found to have reported that there is no relationship between ochratoxin-albumin. In addition, clinical manifestations poisoning include low reproductive capacity, gastrointestinal dysfunction and decline in feed utilization . However, animal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by Ochratoxin A are varies with their sex, age, species, hormonal and nutritional status of the animal .
The most important abiotic factors which influence the growth and Ochratoxin A production by such Spoilage fungi include water availability, temperature and gas composition . Water activity is perhaps the most critical factor influences the germination, growth and establishment of molds on nutrient worthy substrates. The previous studies shown, that Ochratoxin A contamination was produced by P. verrucosum at water activity of 0.95 and a temperature of 250C . Similar to water activity, temperature is also second factor and highly contribution for the production of Ochratoxin A in different agricultural commodities. Number of investigation mentioned as the optimal temperature for Ochratoxin A production is between 25-30°C for A. ochraceus, 10-20°C for A. carbonarius and 20-25°C for A. niger aggregate [36-38]. Not only water and temperature factors but also some of the countries are creating favorable conditions for the formation of Ochratoxin A in different food and feeds.
For instance, in countries of South America, South Asia, and Africa where climate is hot and dry hence aspergillus species are the major Ochratoxin A producers . Similarly, in temperate countries such as the United States, Canada, and Europe, where temperatures are moderate and can be contributed for the production of penicillium genus is the major Ochratoxin A producer . Grain moisture contents are their own important factors for the growing of fungi and production of Ochratoxin A. Several literature data indicate that Penicillium verrucosum is found mostly in grains with moisture contents are higher than about 14.5% . In addition, the development P. verrucosum and formation of Ochratoxin A on different grain (wheat) when the moisture content ranging from 10–30% and 18-22% .
However, when the moisture content was detected below 17% the probability for the growth of P. verrucosum and production of Ochratoxin A is very low . Similar to temperature and moisture contents, gas compositions are other factors for the growth of fungi and production of Ochratoxin A in different food stuffs, dried fruit, alcoholic beverage and coffee. According to  the effect of gas composition is highly contributed for the developments of p.verrucosum and Ochratoxin A formation in inoculated wheat grains for 28 days at 25°C. The effect Ochratoxin A was produced in a commodity largely depends on one or more fungal species is contaminating the commodity due to the presence favorable climatic factors, environmental condition and the way of handling practices such as, drying, storage, processing and transportation) and agricultural methods are play an important role for the growth of fungi and production of Ochratoxin A [43,44]. In generally, all the commodities including of processed and unprocessed food stuffs which are stored in improper manner and exposure for temperature and humidity for a long period of time create favorable conditions for mould growth and can be cause to mycotoxin contamination .
Several methods have been developed for the determination of Ochratoxin A in a variety of food commodities including cereals (barley, corn, wheat bran, and ﬂour), coffee, cocoa, wine, beer, and dried fruits. In the present review some of the analytical methods that used for determination, separation and quantification of Ochratoxin A from different food stuffs, feeds and alcoholic beverage were discuss as follow.
Thin layer chromatography
Thin Layer Chromatography is a technique used to isolate non-volatile mixtures. During conducting the experiments, sheet of aluminum foil, plastic, or glass which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent materials and materials usually including aluminum oxide, cellulose or silica gel . Similar to the other chromatography methods, thin layer chromatography is depends on the separation principles. The separation relies on the relative affinity of compounds towards both the phases. The mobile phase move over the surface of the stationary phase . On the other hand, thin layer chromatography the most widely used and established separation and detection technique for aflatoxin since its developments in the 1960s . Not only for aflatoxin analysis but also used for determination of Ochratoxin A from different agricultural crops product. For instance, detection of 2.4 – 4 mg/Kg of Ochratoxin A, and 10 mg/Kg of Ochratoxin A from rice and wheat respectively . The use of thin layer chromatography analysis for mycotoxins is still popular for both quantitative and semi-quantitative purposes. The main reason is due to its high throughput of samples, low operating cost and ease of identiﬁcation of target compounds, using UV–vis spectral analysis especially in developing country . However, when compared with other chromatographic techniques, thin layer chromatography detection limit is high, length of separation is limited and lack of automation .
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a plate based assay technique which is used for detecting and quantifying substances such as peptides, proteins, antibodies and hormones. Similar to the previously discussed analytical methods, also enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods have their own advantages and limitations during the conducting of analysis. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods have advantages due to their simplicity, and number of samples that can be analyzed at the same time. In addition, it requires low volume samples, quicker sample cleanup, simple and specific . However, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is less accurate and relatively low sensitivity and low efficiency compared with other chromatography techniques . In addition, false positive or negative results are observed because of cross-reactions among molecules or interferences. Therefore, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits should not be used as a quantitative method and should only be used with foods for which they have been extensively tested and demonstrated to work . Moreover, one of the documented reports showed that during the uses of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods sufficient controls must be employed for each test, to ensure the validity of the quantification unless difficult to obtain accurate result .
In fact, more advanced and sensitive analytical methods for determining Ochratoxin A and Ochratoxins in biological materials are being developed consecutively toward the sophisticated development of instrumentation and analytical techniques. Like other forms of chromatography, HPLC allows the separation of chemical constituents through the use of a mobile phase and a stationary phase. The mobile and stationary phase is liquid and solid respectively. In the recent time high performance liquid chromatograph techniques are more popular and preferable analytical methods for mycotoxins analysis compared with other chromatographic methods . For example, compared with thin layer chromatography methods HPLC is extremely quick and efficient . The reason that it uses a pump, rather than gravity, to force a liquid solvent through a solid adsorbent material, with different chemical components separating out as they move at different speeds. Moreover, the process can be completed in roughly 10 to 30 minutes, and it delivers high resolution. As the above mentioned early a number of methods are used for determination of Ochratoxin A from different plant and animal origin food stuffs. However, high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence light detector (HPLC-FLD) and Immunoaffinity column cleanup techniques are primarily used for quantification of Ochratoxin A in large number of sorts of food stuffs both animal and plant origins . The recent study have documented the use of Immunoaffinity column in clean up steps during the analysis of mycotoxins has a numerous advantages. For instance, clean the extracted sample, precision and accuracy, rapidity and finally to reduce some interference from the analyte . In addition, basic advantages of these clean up techniques are the specific binding of Ochratoxin A on to the antibody and the near –complete removal of the matrix interference . Nevertheless, in the case of Ochratoxin A, underestimation can be observed if extraction is done in an alkaline condition, because Ochratoxin A is converted into open-ring Ochratoxin A (OP-OA) and no longer recognized by antibodies .
Ochratoxin A is belonging to a family of structurally related, secondary fungal metabolites produced by various Penicillium and Aspergillus strains. This secondary metabolite mycotoxin groups are leads sever heath problem for human and animal health during the consumption of contaminated food and feeds. For instance, the human being exposure for a long period with Ochratoxin A contaminated diets it leads several health problems such as, kidney, liver cancer and weakening of the immunity system. Likewise, hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic, Immunotoxic, teratogenic, and neurotoxic type of disease are occurred on animal health. Several environmental and climatic conditions are playing an important role for the formation of Ochratoxin A in different agricultural commodity. For example, optimal temperature between 25-30°C and moisture contents are higher than about 14.5% of the food contained food stuffs are easily exposure for mould development and formation of Ochratoxin A. In addition, the effect of gas composition is highly contributed for the developments of p.verrucosum and Ochratoxin A formation when incubated and storage of agricultural commodity for a long period of time. Finally, different analytical techniques are widely used for determination and quantification of Ochratoxin A concentration from plant and animal origin sample such as, thin layer chromatography, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography. However, majority of the present study report indicate that Ochratoxin A widely detected and quantify from the different food and food contained sample by using high performance liquid chromatography analytical techniques. The main reasons for this assay the instrument is highly sensitivity, high resolution and high efficiency compared with other analytical techniques.
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