Abstract

    Open Access Research Article Article ID: JNNSD-8-147

    Better neural images by combining ultrahigh field strength MRI with innovative MRI sequences

    Anuhya Dayal, Andin Ngwa, Brian Rutt, Arutselvan Natarajan* and Edwin Chang*

    Better MRI scanning technologies and protocols can provide insights into neurological disorders. In this review, we describe the basic concepts of MRI and, in the process, we convey to the reader the relevance of MRI as a high-resolution imaging modality of tissue structure and metabolism. We outline the main parameters for improving MRI resolution and sensitivity for the ultimate goal of optimizing the diagnosis of neurological diseases. A key to obtaining high-resolution images by MRI is the strength of the magnet’s external field strength (Bo). The higher the field strength, the better the signal-to-noise (SNR) of acquired signals. Hence, this results in improved sensitivity and resolution of the reconstructed images. This article recapitulates the advancement of MRI technology towards Ultra-High-Field Strength (UHF) apparatus and the consequent benefits in SNR. Other keys towards improving MRI images include deftly modifying the parameters of longitudinal magnetization relaxation time (T1), transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2), repetition times between radiofrequency (RF) pulses (TR), and the time of reading post-pulse (TE). Such parameters can be controlled through acquisition software associated with the MRI machines. The review profiles the cumulative efforts by researchers to complement UHF-MRI hardware with innovative RF pulse sequences protocols such as Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), Pulse Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE), Oscillating Gradient Spin Echo (OGSE), Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD)-MRI and Arterial Spin Label (ASL)-MRI. Collectively, these advances in both MRI hardware and software have pushed the field to attain a mesoscopic level of resolution. Further enhancements in analyzing MRI images through Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms may advance resolutions beyond the mesoscopic stage and perhaps even toward the microscopic resolution of living tissue.

    Keywords:

    Published on: Oct 15, 2022 Pages: 7-17

    Full Text PDF Full Text HTML DOI: 10.17352/jnnsd.000047
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