Abstract

    Open Access Research Article Article ID: AMP-5-139

    Modeling and analysis of the Haldane genetic model under Brownian motion using stochastic differential equation

    Farshad Fattahi*

    Heterozygote advantage as a natural consequence of adaptation in diploid organisms is an attractive mechanism by which two alleles are maintained in natural populations. It has significant effects on biodiversity conservation and plant and animal breeding programs. The mathematical modeling of this biological mechanism is important for eco-evolutionary dynamics studies and genetics investigations. In this paper, I aimed to formalize the changes of gene frequency in time v(t), and in time and space v(t,x) with additive effects in a birth and death process of the Haldane genetic model using Brownian motion under fluctuations of habitat. In addition, the gene-environment interactions were evaluated under the mechanism. The mathematical model was investigated in both deterministic and white noise forms. It was shown that if the environmental random processes in the Haldane genetic model changed quickly and smoothly, then the diffusion approximation of the allele frequencies could be modeled and analyzed by a stochastic partial differential equation. It was revealed that the mathematical model used in this paper belonged to a more general model. The mathematical model was analyzed and since the modeling by the Cauchy problem had not had a usual global solution, the qualitative behavior of the solutions was considered. Besides, the generalizations of ItÔ integral were defined as the integrals of Wick products of random parameters and noise components. It was found that if v(t,x) behaved like a super-Brownian motion and the fatal mutations took place, as a consequence a tiny group of alleles was quickly disappeared. The v(t,x) was unstable when it was close to one. The stationary phase appeared and v(t,x) tended to the stationary situation in the intermediate region under the stabilizing selection. This was a condition under additive gene effect, but with the presence of dominance gene effect, it might be ambidirectional without considering the epistatic effects. The emergence of the dominance and epistatic effects was due to the directional selection. Since Falconer and MacKay had already introduced a deterministic model to study the frequency of genes with no spatial spreading of the population and no stochastic processes, another model was explained to study their equation in the case of heterozygote intermediate for diffusion approximation of frequency of genes, including white noise. It was shown that if the rates of mutation and selection became very small, then the model would be more deterministic and predictable. On the other hand, if the rates of mutation and selection became large, then the model would be more stochastic, and more fluctuations occurred because of the strong effective noise strength. In this case, the stationary situation did not take place. The outlook can help to model the similar biological mechanisms in eco-evolutionary community genetics for studying the indirect genetic effects via the systems of stochastic partial differential equations, and white noise calculus.  

    2020 mathematics subject classification: Primary 92-XX; Secondary 92Dxx, 92D25.

    Keywords:

    Published on: May 30, 2022 Pages: 42-54

    Full Text PDF Full Text HTML DOI: 10.17352/amp.000039
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