1. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Importance of Continuity in Inhaler Devices

      Sarojani Dhurve, Hemlate Thapa*, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander, D. K. Tripathi

      Inhaled therapies are central to the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Physicians consider many factors when selecting the most appropriate inhaler device, including device efficacy and the cost to the health care system. This review aims to discuss the factors that are important when considering inhaler devices and the importance of continuity in the choice of inhaler device. A large number of factors can contribute to therapeutic outcomes with inhalation devices. The inhalation technique is critical to treatment success and differs substantially between inhaler devices. Misuse of an inhaler is common, and thorough training of patients and physicians is important to ensure correct utilization.

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    2. Canagliflozin: A Potential Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

      Jyoti Chauhan, Himanshi Dilliwar, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander, D. K. Tripathi

      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent metabolic disorder, which affects more than 300 million people globally. As hyperglycemia defines diabetes, glycemic control is fundamental to the management of diabetes. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2) are a new group of oral antidiabetic medications that act by blocking the reabsorption of glucose, causing it to be excreted in the urine. Canagliflozin was the first SGLT2 inhibitor to be approved in the US by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment and control of T2DM and on September 19, 2013, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product Invokana(®).

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    3. Advancement in Ophthalmic Delivery of Drugs Through In-Situ Smart Polymers

      Gurpreet Kour, Jhakeshwar Prasad, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander, D. K. Tripathi

      Conventional ophthalmic solutions owing to pre-corneal elimination of the drug, drainage by gravity, nasolacrimal drainage, conjuctival absorption, and the absence of controlled release and of bioadhesive properties exhibit low therapeutic efficacy. These problems can be overcome by various strategies. One of such strategies is to use in-situ gelling systems prepared from polymers that exhibit reversible phase transitions (sol-gel) and pseudo plastic behavior to minimize interference with blinking..The in-situ gelling systems undergo phase transition due to various causes including- temperature, and pH in the pre-corneal region or the electrolyte composition of the tear film. Thus, researchers have developed different kinds of in-situ gelling polymers (eg. thermo, pH, and electrolyte responsive polymers), viscosity- increasing agents and isotonic agents.

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    4. Drug Delivery Device in Opthalmic Therapeutic: Ocular Implant

      Ashish Kumar Netam*, Kailash Sahu, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander, D. K. Tripathi

      Eye is a sensitive, vital organ of our body and if any complication is there than it can lead to serious effect on the visual activity of the individual. Development of novel drug delivery technologies is effective for treatment of ocular diseases. Effective drug delivery from ocular route remains a biggest challenge due to its complex anatomy & physiological structure. Controlled release formulation of various carrier system like nanoparticle, nanoemulsion, micro emulsion, dendrimers and microparticles has been emerged as novel strategies in opthalmic. Variousbiodegradableas well as non-biodegradable polymers used in ocular implantable devices & the technological development of implants as a therapeutic device in the treatment of various ocular disorders has been discussed in this paper.

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    5. Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthrits: Modulation of Therapy by Psychological Factors

      Swechchha Agrawal, Khushboo Sheikh*, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander, D. K. Tripathi

      Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that can cause chronic inflammation of the joints and other areas of the body. There is no known cure for rheumatoid arthritis. To date, the goal of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis is to reduce joint inflammation and pain, maximize joint function, and prevent joint destruction and deformity. This abstract presents a comprehensive review of research relating psychological domains with response to therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A holistic approach to the disease was adopted by incorporating not only disease activity but also dimensions of the impact of disease on patients’ lives. Psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, is common among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and has a significant negative impact on response to therapy and on patients’ abilities to cope with chronic illness.

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    6. The Treatment of Skin Disorders by Formulating Liposomal Gel for Topical Administration

      Akansha Bhandarker, Kshitiz Thakur*, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander, D. K. Tripathi

      Acne vulgaris is a common human skin disease, characterized by areas of skin with seborrhea, comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and possibly scarring. Clindamycin Hydrochloride, a lincosamide antibiotic is used for treatment acne vulgaris. But clindamycin hydrochloride has a major drawback of having low topical bioavailability of only 4-5 %. Liposomal carriers are well known for their potential in topical drug delivery have been chosen to help Clindamycin Hydrochloride molecules in the skin layers. So, the purpose of study was to increase the absorption of drug through the skin using liposomal approach. The liposomes were prepared using different concentrations of phospholipids and cholesterol by thin film hydration method.

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    7. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid on Memory

      Anjali Dubey, Namrata Prajapati*, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander, D. K. Tripathi

      Omega -3 fatty acids are long chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid of plants and marine origin because these essential fatty acid can not be synthesized in the human body, they must be derived from dietry source. Omega -3 fatty acid are vital for normal metabolism but some of potential health benefits of supplementation are controversial. There is tentative evidence that marine omega polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce the risk of breast cancer but this is not conclusive on human. Omega 3 fatty acids on rats inhibit the development of premalignant and malignant lesions which may be due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Omega-3 fatty acids are components of fats in foods we eat.

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    8. Recent Advancements in Phytosomes: An Emerging Technology in the Field of Pharmacognostical Research

      Mukesh Sharma*, Neha Meshram

      Phytosomes are novel drug delivery system containing hydrophilic bioactive phytoconstituents of herbs surround and bound by phospholipids. Development of phytosomes is at the budding stages in India and abroad. It has a lot of potential in the field of medicine, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The technology has improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacological parameters. It is found to be safe and efficacious, which in result can advantageously be used in the treatment of various diseases of human beings and animals. During the last century chemical and pharmacological studies have been performed on a lot of plant extracts in order to know their chemical composition and confirm the indications of traditional medicine.

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    9. In situ Floating Gel Formulation: A Novel Approach in Gastrosustaining Drug Delivery System

      Aditya Sen Choudhary, Prabhat Sahu*, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander, D. K. Tripathi

      Oral route is one of the most popular route for delivery of drug. This route is often limited by poor bioavailability with conventional dosage forms due to incomplete drug release and short residence time at the site of absorption. To overcome this drawback and to maximize the oral absorption of these drugs, novel drug delivery systems have been developed. Gastroretentive systems such as floating systems, mucoadhesive etc.have been developed.Over the past few decades, many novel in situ gel-based delivery matrices have been designed and fabricated to fulfil the ever-increasing needs of the pharmaceutical and medical fields. In situ gelling dosage form is liquid at room temperature before administration but undergo gelation when in contact with body fluids or change in pH.

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    10. Advancement in the Drug Delivery by using Polymers of Natural Origin

      Aravind Kumar Ajgalley, Pratik Nishad*, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander, D. K. Tripathi

      A polymer is a large molecule which consist of repeating structure units or chain connected by co-valent chemical bond. The formulation of solid, liquid, and semi solid dosage form by polymer. The natural polymer are very important for pharmaceutical industry because they are economical, readily available, non toxic and capable of chemical modification and having the property of biodegradability. Polymers consist of long chain branched or unbranched monomer or may be crosslinked networks of monomer in two or three dimention. The useful features of a polymer are its swelling ability which manifests itself. When swelling can be triggered by a change environment around the delivery system. The polymer is depend upon the pH, temperature, ionic strength.

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