1. Emerging as Promising Tool of Nanotechnology: Gold Nanoparticles

      Sunita Singh*, Gyatri Dhruv, Tripti Banjare, Hempushpa Sonboir, Harish Sharma

      The use of nanotechnology in cancer treatment offers some exciting possibilities, including the possibility of destroying cancer tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs, as well as the detection and elimination of cancer cells before they form tumors. A method being developed to fight skin cancer uses gold nanoparticles to which RNA molecules are attached. The nanoparticles penetrate the skin and the RNA attaches to a cancer related gene, stopping the gene from generating proteins that are used in the growth of skin cancer tumors. The applications of nanotechnology in commercial products, although most applications are limited to the bulk use of passive nanomaterials.

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    2. Role of Chemistry in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

      Achal Mishra, Nitish Kumar Verma, Manisha Korram, Madhvi Sahu, Pooja Singh*

      Chemistry is dealing with atoms and molecules; therefore it seems to be the paradigm of the vision of nanotechnology with smallest dimensions ranging from a few nanometres to less than 100 nanometres to build up new structures atom by atom. Chemistry has contributed to the invention and development of materials whose properties depend on nano scale structure which are historically been associated with colloids, micelles, polymer molecules, phase-separated regions in block copolymers, and similar structures. Nanoscience is beginning to produce new methods of characterizing the structures of the phase separated regions (which are often of nanometer dimensions), and thus provide ways of engineering these regions.

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    3. Nanotechnology in Cancer Therapy

      Manisha Korram, Pooja Singh, Madhavi Sahu, Nitish Verma*

      The word "Nano" is derived from the greek word (nanos) means dwarf. Nanotechnology is the study and use of structures between 1 nanometer (nm) and 100 nanometers in size. Nanoparticles can be defined as particles less than 100nm in diameter nanometer-sized particles have novel optical, electronic, and structural properties that are not available either in individual molecules or bulk solids. Nanotechnology has tremendous potential to make an important contribution in cancer prevention, detection, diagnosis, imaging and treatment. Nanomedicine application areas includes drug delivery, cancer therapy, diagnostic &imaging technique and antimicrobial techniques.

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    4. Natural Excipients: A Review

      Ravindra Kumar*, Laxman Kumar Nayak, Shashikant Bhaskar, Ravindra Ekka, Dharmendra Singh Rajput and D.K.Pradhan

      The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Earlier used natural excipients are Carrageenan, Thaumatin, lard, Shilajit, Aerosil, Myrobalan, Storax, etc. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form.

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    5. Emerging Trend in Gold Nanoparticle

      Deepika Singh*, Amita Verma

      Nanoparticles have extremely small size and high surface area hence their surfaces has been available for further modification with hydrophobic, hydrophilic, cationic, anionic or any neutral moieties to the surrounding environment so they have many application in biological sciences. Metal Nanoparticles attract strong interest both because they open up a new field in fundamental science and because of their potential technological applications. Gold Nanoparticles have a great application not only functionalities for specific drug delivery and cellular in bio sensing drugs but also in drug, gene and protein uptake scattering.

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    6. Recent Approches of Drug Delivery System: Microemulsion

      Prerana Kerketta, Harish Sharma*

      Microemulsion is a system of water, oil and amphiphilic compounds (surfactant and cosurfactant) which is a transparent, single optically isotropic and thermodynamically stable liquid. The droplets in a microemulsion are in the range of 0.1-1.0μm. As pharmaceuticals drug delivery systems, microemulsion have unique properties, including clarity, high stability and ease of preparation. Microemulsions able to protect labile drug, control drug release, increase drug solubility, and reduce patient variability. It provides protection against oxidation, enzymatic hydrolysis and improves the solubilization of lipophilic drugs and hence enhances their bioavailability.

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    7. Isolation and Comparative Study of Mucilage from Fenugreek Seeds

      Amit Nishad*, Virendra Rajwade, Omika Yadu, Ashok Bhagat, Nilesh Banarse and D.K.Pradhan

      In recent years, plant derived polymers have evoked tremendous interest due to their diverse pharmaceutical applications such as diluent, binder, disintegrants in tablets, thickeners in oral liquids, protective colloids in suspensions, gelling agents in gels and bases in suppository, they are also used in cosmetics, textiles, paints and paper-making . These polymers such as natural gums and mucilage are biocompatible, cheap and easily available and are preferred to semi synthetic and synthetic excipients because of their lack of toxicity, low cost, availability, soothing action and non-irritant nature.

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    8. Nanotechnology and Insulin: A Perfect Marriage

      Ashwini Kumar* and Awanish Kumar

      Insulin is considered as the final therapeutic agent against IDDM (Type 1 Diabetes) and NIIDM (Type 2 Diabetes) but its delivery is currently possible only through subcutaneous injection. This painful delivery mode has been the major cause of resistance coming from the patients to follow the strict dosing regimen. Oral and pulmonary delivery using nanoparticles and microparticles, therefore, has been considered as the “Golden Way” to overcome the problem of daily injection. Oramed Pharmaceutical, Israel has come out with an oral preparation named ORMD 0801 currently in phase 3 clinical trials while NIDDK and NICHD, USA are also engaged in phase 3 trial of their oral insulin candidate.

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    9. 99-Liposomes-and-Nanotechnology-in-Drug-Development-a-Recent-Approach-on-Ocular-Drug-Delivery-System-An-Overview.pdf

      Chandraprakash Dwivedi *, S Prakash Rao, Shiv Shankar Shukla, Trilochan Satopathy, Amit Roy

      Poor drug delivery to lesions in patients’ eyes is a major obstacle to the treatment of ocular diseases. The accessibility of these areas to drugs is highly restricted by the presence of barriers, including the corneal barrier, aqueous barrier, and the inner and outer blood–retinal barriers. In particular, the posterior segment is difficult to reach for drugs because of its structural peculiarities. This review discusses various barriers to drug delivery and provides comprehen¬sive information for designing nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery systems for the treatment of ocular diseases. Nanoparticles can be designed to improve penetration, controlled release, and drug targeting.

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    10. Bilayer Delivery System Based on Polymeric Composition for Effective Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

      Pooja Mongia Raj*, Rakesh Raj and Alpana Ram

      The use of multiparticulate drug delivery systems in preference to single unit dosage forms for colon targeting purposes dates back to 1985 when scientist showed that multiparticulate systems enabled the drug to reach the colon quickly and were retained in the ascending colon for a relatively long period of time. Site-specific colonic drug delivery systems of anti-inflammatory drug with natural polymer were reported with pH sensitive polymer. Chitosan nanoparticles consisting of a hydrophobic core enteric coated with pH-dependent polymer of Eudragit series are proposed, for the effective delivery of drug to the colon for treatment of ulcerative colitis. Nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation method showed number of hurdle during process.

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