Diksha Singhal* and Abhinav Bansal
Department of Periodontology, People’s College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhanpur, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Received: 03 March, 2016; Accepted: 22 June, 2016; Published: 23 June, 2016
Diksha Singhal, Post-graduate student, Department of Periodontology, People’s College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhanpur, B426 Sarvdharam, Kolar Road, Bhopal- 462042, Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-8982348669; E-mail:
Singhal D, Bansal A (2016) Knowledge and Awareness of Dental Patients Regarding Adverse Effects of Smoking on Periodontal Health. J Dent Probl Solut 3(1): 024-027. 10.17352/2394-8418.000028
© 2016 Singhal D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Smoking; Cancer; Periodontal health; Motivate; Quit
Background: Smoking is considered as a global epidemic. Its adverse effects are well known which ranges from staining of teeth to life threatening diseases such as cancer. Smoking also has serious consequences on periodontal health and even affects periodontal treatment outcomes. Though awareness among people has increased about the ill-effects of smoking, less is known about its side effects on periodontium.
Materials and methods: A questionnaire study was performed in which total 304 dental patients participated. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions, which was made in two languages, English and Hindi. Data was collected and analysed using SPSS version 18.0.
Results: Out of 304, 149 were smokers and most of them (64.43%) were of the age group 25-50 years. Majority of the respondents (92.11%) were aware of the harmful effects of smoking on general health, however only 42.11% (26.17% smokers and 57.42% non-smokers) were familiar with its effects on periodontal health. It was also seen that several smokers (64.08%) wanted to quit the habit but could not do so.
Conclusion: Smokers have significantly less awareness about the adverse effects of smoking on oral and periodontal health as compared to non-smokers. Many efforts are required to increase the awareness, where health professionals including dental, medical and allied health professionals should encourage smokers to quit the habit. 4 I have also been proposed to assist smokers to quit the habit.
Tobacco, both in smoked and smokeless form is considered as a global epidemic , which is one of the most common causes of deaths all over the world . Smoked forms include cigarette or bidi (rolled tendu leaves), cigar, chillum, hookah while smokeless forms are khaini, gutka, zarda, gul, gudaku, tuibur [3-6].
Adverse effects of smoking are well documented and established that affect various organs and parts of the body causing lung cancer, bronchitis, premature birth, cardiovascular diseases [7-11]. The oral and dental problems include staining or discoloration of teeth, oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and smokers palate, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, delayed and impaired wound healing, periodontal diseases, bone loss, mobility of teeth, failure of dental implants to life threatening diseases such as oral cancer [7-10,12-14] However, electro-pulsing treatment can be used in implant dentistry for achieving better results [15,16].
Various studies have been conducted all over the world about knowledge and awareness of ill-effects of smoking on general and oral health. However, not many studies have been conducted in which awareness regarding harmful effectvs of smoking on periodontal health has been estimated. Few studies which have been conducted in the past found that patients are less aware about the adverse effects of smoking on periodontal health [14,17-20].
Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess awareness and knowledge of dental patients about effects of smoking on periodontal health, and using the findings of the study, motivating the patients to quit the habit.
Materials and Methods
A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted during the month of February, 2014. Patients were randomly selected from Out Patient Department (OPD) of Periodontology of People’s College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal. Ethical clearance was obtained from ethical committee of People’s College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal. Informed consent from each patient was taken. The study consisted of a total of 304 patients which included 149 smokers and 155 non-smokers.
The study questionnaire consisted of total 22 questions which was made in 2 languages, i.e. English and Hindi for the convenience of the patients. The questionnaire included socio-demographic variables which included gender, marital status, age and educational level. These were followed by questions related to knowledge and awareness regarding the effects of smoking on general and periodontal health. Patients were even asked if they wanted to quit the habit, reasons for the same and methods that may assist to quit the habit.
Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences version 18.0. Frequency of smoking and reasons for smoking were calculated in terms of percentage. Differences in knowledge and awareness between smokers and non-smokers were assessed using Chi-square test.
Sample characteristics and prevalence of smoking
Out of the 304 patients, 217 (71.38%) were males and 87 (28.62%) were females. Total number of self-reported smokers included 149 (49.01%), out of which 68.66% of total males who participated in the study were smokers and 31.34% were non-smokers, while none of the females smoked (Table 1).
The highest rates of smokers (64.43%) were among 25-50 years of age group. The other socio-demographic like marital status, age group and literacy level are reported in Table 1.
Literacy level and smoking
Table 2 shows that smoking is more popular among those who have graduated in any field (36.91%) followed by people who have attained education till higher secondary (27.52%). Analysis in terms of type of smoking shows that cigarette smoking is more common in the graduates (47.83%) and negligible among illiterates (0%). On the other hand, bidi smoking was found to be more common among high school group (52.94%) and nonexistent among post graduates (0%). Similarly, use of both bidi and cigarettes was more prevalent in people who attained education till high school (64.71%).
Reasons for starting smoking
It has been observed that most of the people started smoking mainly due to peer pressure or because of friends, followed by stress. Few gave other reasons such as status symbol, pain in teeth and liking (Figure 1). The results demonstrate that friend circle was the main reason for starting smoking in the age group <25 years, while stress was the chief reason in the 25-50 years of age group (Table 3).
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